“All vital functions are at stake”: how to escape the heat

– Statements about the arrival of abnormal heat in Russia are already emerging, it seems, every year – just the other day, they again warned about its onset. What temperatures are currently considered abnormal and which are normal? Has this rule changed in recent years?

– Meteorological norms or seasonal averages cannot be called the norm for a person. For meteorologists, compared to the average temperature in the region, for example, in the last few years, a temperature of 30 ° C in July can be considered normal, and the same temperature at the end of August is abnormal.

And for a person this value will be abnormal in any period.

Most people need an ambient temperature between 20 and 25°C to feel comfortable. Numerous studies and observations have led to this conclusion. Deviations in one direction reduce performance, increase health risks.

– Is high temperature dangerous for the body itself or just for its fluctuations?

Both are dangerous. Overheating will occur if you stay in the open sun for a long time or stay in a hot, stuffy room. Our normal body temperatures range from 35.5 to 37.4°C. If the temperature rises to 40 ° C, serious changes in brain functions begin in the body, vital functions are disturbed.

Man in the evolution process was able to adapt to changing climatic conditions.

When the outside temperature rises, we begin to sweat – this opens the cooling mechanism. But, firstly, we cannot stay in critical conditions for a long time, and the body still overheats, and secondly, due to age or chronic diseases, the ability of many people to adapt quickly weakens, a person cannot cope and can get a serious complication. health in extreme temperature fluctuations.

— Are residents of southern regions generally more prone to heat-related health problems? Or have they already adapted to it?

– Of course, people born and raised in a certain climate are more adaptable to it. Some people have even developed a special skin pigment that keeps you from getting sunburned. But the adaptation of residents of warm countries is not only at the physiological level, where there is a limit. The traditions and lifestyle acquired over the centuries also help. They wear wide clothing, hats that completely cover the body from the sun. Instead of cold water, they drink hot tea, which increases sweating and cools the body. They try to slow down the activity during the hottest hours of the sun and follow a certain diet. For example, do not eat fatty and heavy foods.

– Many people probably know that the heart and blood vessels suffer in the heat. What other organs are at risk?

– All vital functions of the body are in danger when it is overheated. Heat causes circulatory disorders, cardiovascular system, blood pressure rises, headaches, dizziness appear, metabolic processes are disturbed, and chronic diseases are aggravated.

How does heat affect the soul?

– Heat is stress for the body.

Any stress affects the human psyche. At high temperatures, oxygen starvation may occur due to impaired blood flow to the brain. As a result, the mood worsens, insomnia appears, the risk of nervous breakdowns, irritability and even aggression increases.

In heat, the concentration and reaction rate are significantly reduced. Therefore, if possible, it is better to refrain from long trips by car, delaying solving important problems that require attention, relieve mental stress.

– Which chronic diseases can worsen in the heat?

– Persons at risk in the heat are those who have any chronic diseases, whose immunity is weakened after acute illnesses or during the illness. Moreover, many diseases in the early stages do not manifest themselves at all, and therefore a person may not even know that he is at risk when in heat. It is possible to detect them only thanks to modern diagnostic methods. This can be done, in particular, for free in the city parks of the capital, where the Healthy Moscow pavilions currently operate, where you can undergo a comprehensive medical examination in just an hour. Most often, risk factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases are determined in patients examined in pavilions. In second place – deviations in blood sugar. These are precisely the diseases in which heat causes a high risk of complications.

In general, anyone who does not follow long-term heat exposure precautions may be at risk. Overheating can cause heat stroke and dehydration. High ambient temperature is a stress for the body of any person.

Particular attention should be paid to the elderly, many of whom have various chronic diseases that reduce their adaptive functions. Heat is also dangerous for children who do not feel danger, stay in the sun for a long time, but at the same time, thermoregulation in children is still poorly developed.

Which drugs should not be taken on hot days?

– Hot weather, of course, causes the risk of side effects of some drugs – for example, diuretics. However, it is not worth refusing to take drugs prescribed by a doctor, which patients constantly take for chronic diseases. Heat is a risk that should be discussed with your doctor beforehand and the dose of medication or therapy adjusted if necessary. You cannot prescribe medication for yourself. It is also necessary to carry medication with you at all times to stop possible exacerbations.

At the same time, people using drugs should carefully follow the recommended drinking regimen to prevent dehydration, avoid salty foods that retain water in the body, and avoid exposure to the sun in hot weather and in stuffy rooms.

– From what do people most often die in the heat? Are we always talking about a direct effect on the body in these cases, or are there indirect causes – drowning while trying to cool off by swimming in the lake, poisoning from food spoiled in the heat?

– Of course, there are indirect reasons that lead to tragic cases in the heat. But still, these are factors that a person can control to some extent. For example, be careful on the water, do not swim in unknown and dubious reservoirs, be more careful about food. However, the causes and serious consequences of the direct effects of high temperatures on health cannot always be avoided. In heat, blood thickens, damaging blood vessels and significantly increasing the risk of cardiovascular accidents. For this reason, people with chronic diseases need to be extremely cautious and careful.

Many times people suffer because of carelessness. The sun is insidious because the peak of the negative influence can be missed.

For example, you can avoid heatstroke or sunstroke by staying outside in the sun or in a stuffy room. Many people suffer from dehydration without maintaining a drinking regimen.

Sometimes heat stroke can result in death and is associated with irreversible health effects for some patients. For this reason, you should be alert and take action immediately in cases such as headache and dizziness, fever, fatigue, weakness, depression, skin rash, shortness of breath, cold sweat, and nausea in hot weather.

– How do other weather factors affect the risks in the case of heat – humidity, wind speed?

– When humidity is low, heat is better tolerated, but at the same time the risk of dehydration increases. Therefore, you need to drink more. High humidity exacerbates the effect of high temperature, as it makes it harder for sweat to evaporate and cool the body. When wind heat is transferred more easily as the wind gets colder. At the same time, the risk of getting cold in a draft increases due to the temperature difference in the air flows. These factors should be taken into account.

Russians often go on vacation to places that are warmer than their hometowns. Wouldn’t it be a healthier choice to take a vacation in a cooler place?

“People often tend to go on vacation by the sea, and these are usually regions with a warm climate.

It is difficult to discuss the healing effects of sea water and sun, but it is necessary to be aware of the risks and take precautions.

First of all, acclimatization takes place when the climate changes in any direction. A person may feel unwell, suffer from cough, runny nose and fever. Therefore, it is necessary to take time to adapt to the climate. Acclimatization can also occur on the way home. Secondly, it is necessary to observe the measure in the open sun so as not to injure yourself.

– How to cool off in the heat and what methods can be dangerous?

To make it easier to withstand the heat, you must first avoid overheating. To do this, you need to follow simple rules: avoid physical activity on very hot days and hours, wear a summer hat, loose, light-colored clothes made of natural fabrics, carry water with you and constantly drink in small portions. In the presence of chronic diseases, it is important to take the drugs prescribed by the doctor, monitor the pressure parameters. When inside, open windows, use fans and air conditioners to ensure constant air circulation, take cold showers more often.

It is also important to avoid overeating and drinking alcohol in the heat.

At the same time, it is dangerous to turn on the air conditioner at low temperatures, allow drafts, dive into cold water or take a very cold shower, and drink ice-cold drinks when it is hot, especially after being in the heat. . In hot weather, I recommend you to go to parks and squares where trees and ponds provide shade and coolness.

Isn’t it better how the heat hits the body and soul, where people die most often on hot days, how to cool off in a cool place and without hurting yourself? socialbites.ca Aid to the adult population of Moscow, chief physician of KDP No. 121 of the Moscow Ministry of Health, Candidate of Medical Sciences Andrey Tyazhelnikov.

Source: Gazeta


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